1997-2005 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Cars Subaru Forester
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
- The engine
Design features and principle of functioning of the engine, - the general information and adjustment клапанных backlashes
Major repairs and engine service - the general information
Check of pressure of oil
Check компрессионного pressure in cylinders
Diagnostics of a condition of the engine with vacuum gauge application
Removal of the power unit from the car - preparation and safety measures
Removal and engine installation
Alternative variants of schemes of regenerative repair of the engine
Order of dismantling of the engine by its preparation for major repairs
Dismantling of drive ГРМ, - removal, check of a condition and installation of components
Removal, dismantling, check, assemblage and axis installation коромысел, - engines SOHC
Removal, check of a condition and installation of camshafts
Service of heads of cylinders
Service of the block of cylinders
Greasing system - the general information
Removal, service and installation
Removal, check and installation маслоохладителя - only engines DOHC
Trial start and обкатка the engine after major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Gear change box
+ Coupling, трансмиссионная a line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Design features and principle of functioning of the engine, - the general information and adjustment клапанных backlashesIn the given Chapter the device and procedures of service of engines of two types is described: with one (SOHC) or two (DOHC) camshafts for each of heads of cylinders.
Horizontal, 4-cylinder, оппозитный 4-taktnyj the petrol engine of liquid cooling equipped 16-klapannym with the mechanism timing with one camshaft for each of heads of cylinders.
The scheme of an arrangement of the basic components 4-cylinder оппозитного engine SOHC
The engine has following design features:
Four-cycle оппозитный the engine with a turbo-supercharging, is equipped 16-klapannym by the mechanism timing with two camshafts for each of heads of cylinders.
The scheme of an arrangement of the basic components 4-cylinder оппозитного engine DOHC
Hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes are established in support одноплечих коромысел a drive of valves, instead of in коромыслах.
Four camshafts (on two on each of heads) are put in action one gear belt, effort which tension is regulated automatically.
Gear belt of drive ГРМ
Camshafts of the left and right heads of cylinders are put in action by one gear belt. Besides, the back party of the same belt carries out a drive of the water pump.
The lining scheme газораспределительного a belt on engines SOHC
* The piston of the first cylinder is in position ВМТ of the end of a step of compression at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on the block.
** The piston of 1st cylinder is in position ВМТ of 1st cylinder at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on a cover of drive ГРМ.
The lining scheme газораспределительного a belt on engines DOHC
* The piston of the first cylinder is in position ВМТ of the end of a step of compression at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on the block
** The piston of 1st cylinder is in position ВМТ of 1st cylinder at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on a cover of drive ГРМ
The belt is made of heat-resistant rubber and reinforced by a steel wearproof cord.
Tension adjustment газораспределительного a belt is carried out automatically by means of hydraulic натяжителя.
The necessary effort of a tension газораспределительного a belt is supported by a rod automatic натяжителя, wringing out a tension roller. The axis of turn of a roller does not coincide with an axis of its rotation, the twisting moment put to a roller at the expense of effort, developed by the basic spring placed in assemblage натяжителя is as a result created.
Design automatic hydraulic натяжителя газораспределительного a belt
Under the influence of the effort developed by the basic spring, the rod натяжителя moves to the left, thanks to what hydraulic pressure (silicone greasing filling the device constantly is under the pressure created by the drawing in spring, located from a tank outer side натяжителя) wrings out the ball of the valve and greasing arrives in the working chamber натяжителя. Deployment of a tension roller proceeds until effort of the reaction put from outside of a tape of a belt, will not counterbalance the effort developed by the basic spring натяжителя.
Sharp increase of effort of reaction from outside a belt can lead to an excessive tension of the last in order to avoid what the greasing small amount is squeezed out from the working chamber натяжителя in a special receiver through a backlash rod landing in the assemblage case. Greasing will be pumped over in a receiver until the equilibrium state (between effort of reaction of a belt and total effort of the basic spring and hydraulic pressure in the working chamber) will be reached.
The gear belt is located under a cover of drive ГРМ. The cover is made of heat resisting shock-resistant plastic, a surface of a joint of a casing with the block of cylinders герметизируется by means of a rubber insert that prevents belt pollution, and also allows to lower level of noise and the vibrations published by the engine at work.
The labels are put on a forward surface of a cover of drive ГРМ, allowing to carry out check of correctness of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.
The mechanism of a drive of valves
In axial apertures коромысел a drive of valves запрессованы wearproof plugs, and in the surfaces co-operating with cams of a camshaft are filled in special loose leaves from металлокерамики.
The working ends коромысел are equipped by hydraulic proof-readers клапанных the backlashes, supporting zero values of the last. Application of hydroproof-readers allows in essential measure to lower level of noise made by the engine necessity for periodic adjustment клапанного the mechanism, besides, disappears.
The installation scheme коромысел a drive of valves on engines SOHC
Коромысла final valves remind under the form letter Y and influence both inlet valves of the cylinders simultaneously.
In an axis коромысел it is provided internal маслоток, equipped built in редукционным by the valve.
The scheme of functioning of the mechanism of a drive of valves on engines DOHC
In assemblage engines DOHC коромысел with axes are absent, - camshaft cams influence valves through одноплечие levers in which support hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes are built in.
The klapannyj mechanism, - the general information, adjustment клапанных backlashes
The general information
Principle of functioning of hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes
Some engines can be equipped by hydraulic proof-readers клапанных backlashes. Assemblages of hydroproof-readers are established in the working ends коромысел a drive of each of valves (engines SOHC), or (engines DOHC) are located in support одноплечих drivers levers.
On models without hydroproof-readers adjustment клапанных backlashes should be made on a regular basis according to the routine maintenance schedule (Routine maintenance see the Head).
Adjustment of backlashes
Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the inlet valve of 1st cylinder and the final valve of 3rd cylinder
Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the final valve of 2nd cylinder and the inlet valve of 3rd cylinder
Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the inlet valve of 2nd cylinder and the final valve of 4th cylinder
Positioning of camshafts for adjustment вsпускного the valve of 1st cylinder and the inlet valve of 4th cylinder
Assemblage is made in an order, the return to an order of dismantle of components.
Design of camshafts of engines SOHC
The design of camshafts is presented on an accompanying illustration.
Working surfaces of cams of camshafts are exposed to the special processing appreciably raising their wear resistance.
The camshaft of the right head of cylinders is established in three demountable support, left - in four. Both shaft are equipped by the persistent flanges providing the control axial люфта of assemblages.
Design of camshafts of engines DOHC
The design of camshafts is presented on an accompanying illustration.
In engines DOHC each of heads of cylinders is equipped by two camshafts, - one inlet and one final, putting in action the valves with the same name.
Working surfaces of cams are tempered.
Each of shaft is established in a head in three demountable support.
Axial люфт assemblages it is supervised by special basic flanges.
Head of cylinders
Chambers of combustion of tent type, with the central arrangement of spark plugs. On each cylinder it is necessary on four valves, - two inlet and two final.
Linings of gas joints are executed from a carbon material not containing asbestos with a metal fringing of chambers of combustion.
The block of cylinders
The block of cylinders is executed from an aluminium alloy by a moulding method under pressure and equipped by the dry sleeves of cylinders made of pig-iron.
The oil pump settles down in the middle in a forward part of the block, the water pump - in a forward part of the left semiblock. In a back part of the right semiblock the oil separator of system of ventilation картера is established.
Полноопорный the cranked shaft is established in five radical bearings of the block. Radical and шатунные gangs of a shaft for durability increase are equipped галтелями. Loose leaves of radical bearings are made of an aluminium alloy. The third bearing is equipped by flanges and is persistent.
Apertures under piston fingers are executed with displacement concerning the piston centre. In pistons of 1st and 3rd cylinders of an aperture 2nd are displaced downwards, and 4th - upwards.
In order to avoid contact of pistons to valves at infringement of installations of phases timing in the bottoms of pistons special samples are provided. The marks unequivocally defining position of the piston on the engine are put on a bottom surface.
Each piston is completed by two компрессионными rings and one маслосъемным. Top компрессионное the ring has an internal conic facet. The second компрессионное the ring - scraper type differs the step form of the working surface providing an additional guarantee of prevention of hit of oil in the chamber of combustion. The maslosemnoe ring - the combined type consists of two working sections and one spring dilator.