Subaru Forester

1997-2005 of release

Repair and car operation



Subaru Forester
+ Cars Subaru Forester
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
- The engine
   Design features and principle of functioning of the engine, - the general information and adjustment клапанных backlashes
   Major repairs and engine service - the general information
   Check of pressure of oil
   Check компрессионного pressure in cylinders
   Diagnostics of a condition of the engine with vacuum gauge application
   Removal of the power unit from the car - preparation and safety measures
   Removal and engine installation
   Alternative variants of schemes of regenerative repair of the engine
   Order of dismantling of the engine by its preparation for major repairs
   Dismantling of drive ГРМ, - removal, check of a condition and installation of components
   Removal, dismantling, check, assemblage and axis installation коромысел, - engines SOHC
   Removal, check of a condition and installation of camshafts
   Service of heads of cylinders
   Service of the block of cylinders
   Greasing system - the general information
   Removal, service and installation
   Removal, check and installation маслоохладителя - only engines DOHC
   Trial start and обкатка the engine after major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Gear change box
+ Coupling, трансмиссионная a line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment
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Design features and principle of functioning of the engine, - the general information and adjustment клапанных backlashes

In the given Chapter the device and procedures of service of engines of two types is described: with one (SOHC) or two (DOHC) camshafts for each of heads of cylinders.

Engines SOHC

Horizontal, 4-cylinder, оппозитный 4-taktnyj the petrol engine of liquid cooling equipped 16-klapannym with the mechanism timing with one camshaft for each of heads of cylinders.

The scheme of an arrangement of the basic components 4-cylinder оппозитного engine SOHC


1 — Koromyslo of a drive of the inlet valve
2 — the Hydroproof-reader клапанного a backlash
3 — the Inlet valve
4 — the Final valve
5 — the Camshaft
6 — Koromyslo of a drive of the final valve
7 — the Axis коромысел

8 — the Cranked shaft
9 — the Rod
10 — an axis Support коромысел
11 — the Cover of a head of cylinders
12 — the Spark plug
13 — the Head of cylinders
14 — the Piston


The engine has following design features:
  • Chambers of combustion of tent type with the central arrangement of a spark plug and four valves (two inlet and two final) on one cylinder;
  • In коромысла a drive of valves pushers with hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes are built in;
  • The drive of camshafts of the left and right heads of cylinders is carried out by means of one gear belt which also is used for a drive of the water pump located in the left semiblock of the power unit. Tension adjustment газораспределительного a belt is made automatically;
  • Полноопорный the cranked shaft is established in five radical bearings;
  • The block of cylinders is made of an aluminium alloy by a moulding method under pressure and supplied by pig-iron sleeves of cylinders of the dry type, filled in in unit semiblocks.
  • Engines DOHC

    Four-cycle оппозитный the engine with a turbo-supercharging, is equipped 16-klapannym by the mechanism timing with two camshafts for each of heads of cylinders.

    The scheme of an arrangement of the basic components 4-cylinder оппозитного engine DOHC


    1 — the Inlet camshaft
    2 — Koromyslo of a drive of the inlet valve
    3 — the Hydroproof-reader клапанного a backlash
    4 — the Inlet valve
    5 — the Final camshaft
    6 — Koromyslo of a drive of the final valve
    7 — the Final valve

    8 — the Cranked shaft
    9 — the Rod
    10 — the Cover of the bearing of an inlet camshaft
    11 — the Cover of the bearing of a final camshaft
    12 — the Piston
    13 — the Head of cylinders
    14 — the Spark plug


    Hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes are established in support одноплечих коромысел a drive of valves, instead of in коромыслах.

    Four camshafts (on two on each of heads) are put in action one gear belt, effort which tension is regulated automatically.

    Gear belt of drive ГРМ

    Camshafts of the left and right heads of cylinders are put in action by one gear belt. Besides, the back party of the same belt carries out a drive of the water pump.

    The lining scheme газораспределительного a belt on engines SOHC

    1 — the Scale of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition
    2 — Adjusting labels
    3 — a position Label поршня*
    4 — the Label of position of the piston **
    5 — the Tension roller
    6 — Automatic натяжитель
    7 — the Cogwheel of a camshaft of the left head of cylinders

    8 — the Cogwheel of a camshaft of the right head of cylinders
    9 — the Intermediate roller № 1
    10 — the Gear belt
    11 — the Cogwheel of a cranked shaft
    12 — the Intermediate cogwheel № 2
    13 — the Pulley of the water pump


    * The piston of the first cylinder is in position ВМТ of the end of a step of compression at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on the block.

    ** The piston of 1st cylinder is in position ВМТ of 1st cylinder at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on a cover of drive ГРМ.

    The lining scheme газораспределительного a belt on engines DOHC

    1  — the  Scale of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition
    2  —  Adjusting labels
    3  — a  position Label поршня*
    4  —  Labels of position of the piston **
    5  — the  Tension roller
    6  —  Automatic натяжитель
    7  — the  Cogwheel of an inlet camshaft of the left head of cylinders

    8  — the  Cogwheel of a final camshaft of the left head of cylinders
    9  — the  Intermediate roller № 1
    10  — the  Gear belt
    11  — the  Intermediate cogwheel № 2
    12  — the  Pulley of the water pump
    13  — the  Cogwheel of an inlet camshaft of the right head of cylinders
    14  — the  Cogwheel of a final camshaft of the right head of cylinders


    * The piston of the first cylinder is in position ВМТ of the end of a step of compression at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on the block
    ** The piston of 1st cylinder is in position ВМТ of 1st cylinder at combination of the given label with reciprocal риской on a cover of drive ГРМ

    The belt is made of heat-resistant rubber and reinforced by a steel wearproof cord.

    Tension adjustment газораспределительного a belt is carried out automatically by means of hydraulic натяжителя.

    The necessary effort of a tension газораспределительного a belt is supported by a rod automatic натяжителя, wringing out a tension roller. The axis of turn of a roller does not coincide with an axis of its rotation, the twisting moment put to a roller at the expense of effort, developed by the basic spring placed in assemblage натяжителя is as a result created.

    Design automatic hydraulic натяжителя газораспределительного a belt


    1  —  Gazoraspredelitelnyj a belt
    2  — the  Arm натяжителя
    3  — the  Rod
    4  — the  Roller натяжителя
    5  — the  Ball valve
    6  — the  Basic spring
    7  — the  Case натяжителя

    8  — the  Working chamber
    9  — the  receiver Chamber
    10  — the  Cuff
    11  — the  Piston
    12  — the  Drawing in spring
    13  — the  Lock ring


    Under the influence of the effort developed by the basic spring, the rod натяжителя moves to the left, thanks to what hydraulic pressure (silicone greasing filling the device constantly is under the pressure created by the drawing in spring, located from a tank outer side натяжителя) wrings out the ball of the valve and greasing arrives in the working chamber натяжителя. Deployment of a tension roller proceeds until effort of the reaction put from outside of a tape of a belt, will not counterbalance the effort developed by the basic spring натяжителя.

    Sharp increase of effort of reaction from outside a belt can lead to an excessive tension of the last in order to avoid what the greasing small amount is squeezed out from the working chamber натяжителя in a special receiver through a backlash rod landing in the assemblage case. Greasing will be pumped over in a receiver until the equilibrium state (between effort of reaction of a belt and total effort of the basic spring and hydraulic pressure in the working chamber) will be reached.

    The gear belt is located under a cover of drive ГРМ. The cover is made of heat resisting shock-resistant plastic, a surface of a joint of a casing with the block of cylinders герметизируется by means of a rubber insert that prevents belt pollution, and also allows to lower level of noise and the vibrations published by the engine at work.

    The labels are put on a forward surface of a cover of drive ГРМ, allowing to carry out check of correctness of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

    The mechanism of a drive of valves

    Engines SOHC

    In axial apertures коромысел a drive of valves запрессованы wearproof plugs, and in the surfaces co-operating with cams of a camshaft are filled in special loose leaves from металлокерамики.

    The working ends коромысел are equipped by hydraulic proof-readers клапанных the backlashes, supporting zero values of the last. Application of hydroproof-readers allows in essential measure to lower level of noise made by the engine necessity for periodic adjustment клапанного the mechanism, besides, disappears.

    The installation scheme коромысел a drive of valves on engines SOHC


    1  —  Lyska on an axis body
    2  — the  Hydroproof-reader клапанного a backlash
    3  —  axis Support коромысел
    4  —  Elastic wavy washers

    5  —  Koromysla of inlet valves
    6  —  Reduktsionnyj the valve
    7  —  Koromyslo of final valves


    Коромысла final valves remind under the form letter Y and influence both inlet valves of the cylinders simultaneously.

    In an axis коромысел it is provided internal маслоток, equipped built in редукционным by the valve.

    Engines DOHC

    The scheme of functioning of the mechanism of a drive of valves on engines DOHC

    1  — the  Lever of a drive of the valve
    2  — the  Camshaft
    3  — the  Ceramic-metal loose leaf
    4  — the  Support
    5  — the  Hydroproof-reader клапанного a backlash

     


    In assemblage engines DOHC коромысел with axes are absent, - camshaft cams influence valves through одноплечие levers in which support hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes are built in.

    The klapannyj mechanism, - the general information, adjustment клапанных backlashes
    The general information

    Principle of functioning of hydroproof-readers клапанных backlashes

    And  —  At valve opening
    In  —  At valve closing
    1  —  Effort of reaction from outside a valve/koromysla core
    2  —  Oil from greasing system

     


    Some engines can be equipped by hydraulic proof-readers клапанных backlashes. Assemblages of hydroproof-readers are established in the working ends коромысел a drive of each of valves (engines SOHC), or (engines DOHC) are located in support одноплечих drivers levers.

    On models without hydroproof-readers adjustment клапанных backlashes should be made on a regular basis according to the routine maintenance schedule (Routine maintenance see the Head).

    Adjustment of backlashes

     PERFORMANCE ORDER

    1. Disconnect a negative wire from the battery.

    If the stereosystem established on the car is equipped by a security code before to disconnect the battery make sure that have a correct combination for audiosystem input in action!

    2. Remove a coal adsorber and its basic arm (Heads of the Power supply system and release and the Control system of the engine see).
    3. Remove an air cleaner in gathering with an air inlet sleeve (see the Head of the Power supply system and release).
    4. Remove the tank of a liquid of washing of glasses.
    5. Disconnect electroconducting from spark plugs.
    6. Disconnect from covers of heads of cylinders hoses of system of ventilation картера (PCV).
    7. Поддомкратьте the car also establish it on props. Remove the right and left screens of protection картера.
    8. Remove the right section of a cover of drive ГРМ.
    9. Remove covers of a head of cylinders.
    10. Having turned a cranked shaft clockwise, achieve a corresponding arrangement стрелочных adjusting labels of cogwheels of camshafts.

    Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the inlet valve of 1st cylinder and the final valve of 3rd cylinder


    Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the final valve of 2nd cylinder and the inlet valve of 3rd cylinder


    Positioning of camshafts for adjustment of the inlet valve of 2nd cylinder and the final valve of 4th cylinder


    Positioning of camshafts for adjustment вsпускного the valve of 1st cylinder and the inlet valve of 4th cylinder


     PERFORMANCE ORDER

    1. With the help probeа лезвийного type measure клапанные backlashes of corresponding two valves "". Write down results of measurement and compare them to requirements of Specifications.
    2. Having turned a cranked shaft clockwise, achieve demanded for transition to adjustment of the next two valves of position of camshafts.
    3. Continuing to operate in a similar manner, check up backlashes of all valves.
    4. Turning a cranked shaft clockwise, achieve, that the cam of a drive of the valve requiring adjustment on a corresponding camshaft has appeared will develop a working ledge upwards (from the valve).

    At absence near at hand a special set for adjusting washers, for extraction of the last it is necessary to remove a camshaft (see Has undressed Removal, check of a condition and installation of camshafts).

    5. Develop a pusher риской under 45 and establish on a shaft the adaptation for removal of adjusting washers (498187100). Turning an adaptation cam, achieve reception of a sufficient backlash between an adjusting washer and a valve pusher, then by means of tweezers or a magnetic pencil take a washer.
    6. Measure a thickness of the taken washer “V”. The thickness of a new adjusting washer “S” is defined under the formula: S = V + Т - Х (mm), where Т - size measured earlier клапанного a backlash; Х = 0.20 for inlet valves and 0.25 - for final.
    7. Adjusting washers are issued in a range of thickness from 2.33 mm to 2.69 mm with step of 0.02 mm.
    8. Installation of the picked up washer is made in an order, the return to an order of removal of the old.
    9. Make replacement of washers for all valves requiring adjustment.

    Assemblage is made in an order, the return to an order of dismantle of components.

    Camshafts

    Engines SOHC

    Design of camshafts of engines SOHC

    1  — the  Camshaft of the left head of cylinders
    2  —  Podshipnikovye of a neck
    3  —  Maslotok
    4  — the  Persistent flange
    5  — the  Camshaft of the right head of cylinders

     


    The design of camshafts is presented on an accompanying illustration.

    Working surfaces of cams of camshafts are exposed to the special processing appreciably raising their wear resistance.

    The camshaft of the right head of cylinders is established in three demountable support, left - in four. Both shaft are equipped by the persistent flanges providing the control axial люфта of assemblages.

    Engines DOHC

    Design of camshafts of engines DOHC

    1  — the  Inlet camshaft of the left head of cylinders
    2  —  Podshipnikovye of a neck
    3  —  Maslotok
    4  — the  Persistent flange
    5  — the  Final camshaft of the left head of cylinders
    6  — the  Inlet camshaft of the right head of cylinders
    7  — the  Final camshaft of the right head of cylinders

     


    The design of camshafts is presented on an accompanying illustration.

    In engines DOHC each of heads of cylinders is equipped by two camshafts, - one inlet and one final, putting in action the valves with the same name.

    Working surfaces of cams are tempered.

    Each of shaft is established in a head in three demountable support.

    Axial люфт assemblages it is supervised by special basic flanges.

    Head of cylinders

    Chambers of combustion of tent type, with the central arrangement of spark plugs. On each cylinder it is necessary on four valves, - two inlet and two final.

    Linings of gas joints are executed from a carbon material not containing asbestos with a metal fringing of chambers of combustion.

    The block of cylinders

    The block of cylinders is executed from an aluminium alloy by a moulding method under pressure and equipped by the dry sleeves of cylinders made of pig-iron.

    The oil pump settles down in the middle in a forward part of the block, the water pump - in a forward part of the left semiblock. In a back part of the right semiblock the oil separator of system of ventilation картера is established.

    Cranked shaft

    Полноопорный the cranked shaft is established in five radical bearings of the block. Radical and шатунные gangs of a shaft for durability increase are equipped галтелями. Loose leaves of radical bearings are made of an aluminium alloy. The third bearing is equipped by flanges and is persistent.

    Pistons

    Apertures under piston fingers are executed with displacement concerning the piston centre. In pistons of 1st and 3rd cylinders of an aperture 2nd are displaced downwards, and 4th - upwards.

    In order to avoid contact of pistons to valves at infringement of installations of phases timing in the bottoms of pistons special samples are provided. The marks unequivocally defining position of the piston on the engine are put on a bottom surface.

    Piston design


    1  —  Marks of dimensional group of the piston
    2  — the  Adjusting label (it is turned forward on the engine)
    3  —  Identification labels (R - right, L - left)
    4  —  Top компрессионное a ring
    5  — the  Internal facet
    6  — the  Second компрессионное a ring

    7  — the  Step
    8  —  Maslosemnoe a ring
    9  — the  Top working section (scraper)
    10  — the  Dilator
    11  — the  Bottom working section (scraper)


    Each piston is completed by two компрессионными rings and one маслосъемным. Top компрессионное the ring has an internal conic facet. The second компрессионное the ring - scraper type differs the step form of the working surface providing an additional guarantee of prevention of hit of oil in the chamber of combustion. The maslosemnoe ring - the combined type consists of two working sections and one spring dilator.