Subaru Forester

1997-2005 of release

Repair and car operation



Subaru Forester
+ Cars Subaru Forester
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
- The engine
   Design features and principle of functioning of the engine, - the general information and adjustment клапанных backlashes
   Major repairs and engine service - the general information
   Check of pressure of oil
   Check компрессионного pressure in cylinders
   Diagnostics of a condition of the engine with vacuum gauge application
   Removal of the power unit from the car - preparation and safety measures
   Removal and engine installation
   Alternative variants of schemes of regenerative repair of the engine
   Order of dismantling of the engine by its preparation for major repairs
   Dismantling of drive ГРМ, - removal, check of a condition and installation of components
   Removal, dismantling, check, assemblage and axis installation коромысел, - engines SOHC
   Removal, check of a condition and installation of camshafts
   Service of heads of cylinders
   Service of the block of cylinders
   Greasing system - the general information
   Removal, service and installation
   Removal, check and installation маслоохладителя - only engines DOHC
   Trial start and обкатка the engine after major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Gear change box
+ Coupling, трансмиссионная a line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment
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Service of the block of cylinders

Preparation, removal of external components

The block of cylinders and accompanying components. Engines SOHC

1  — the  Bottom cover картера couplings
2  — the  Flywheel
3  — an  oil separator Cover
4  — the  Branch pipe охладительного a path
5  — the  Water pump
6  — the  Oil pump

7  — the  Pallet картера
8  — the  Arm маслозаборника
9  —  Maslozabornik with the mesh filter
10  —  Maslootrazhatelnaja a partition
11  — the  Oil filter


The block of cylinders and accompanying components. Engines DOHC

1  — the  Bottom cover картера couplings
2  — the  Flywheel
3  — an  oil separator Cover
4  —  Branch pipes охладительного a path
5  — the  Water pump
6  — the  Oil pump
7  — the  Pallet картера
8  — the  Arm маслозаборника

9  —  Maslozabornik with the mesh filter
10  —  Maslootrazhatelnaja a partition
11  — the  Oil filter
12  — the  Connecting tube
13  — the  Bolt of fastening of an arm
14  — the  Connecting tube
15  —  Masloohladitel
16  —  Perepusknoj a branch pipe охладительного a path


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Remove components of drive ГРМ (the Section Dismantling of drive ГРМ see, - removal, check of a condition and installation of components).
2. On engines SOHC remove the inlet pipeline and heads of cylinders.
3. On engines DOHC remove covers of a head of cylinders, camshafts and accompanying components, then remove heads of cylinders.
4. Remove the bottom cover картера couplings.


Blocking of a cranked shaft at release bolts of fastening of a flywheel/privodnogo of a disk by means of special скобы

1  — the  Flywheel (models with РКПП)
2  —  Lock скоба
3  —  Privodnoj a disk (models with АТ)

 


Branch of assemblage of the oil pump from the block of cylinders by means of a screw-driver with a flat sting

1  — the  Screw-driver

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Remove a flywheel/privodnoj a disk, - blocking of a cranked shaft is made by means of special скобы.
2. Uncover an oil separator.
3. Remove перепускной a branch pipe охладительного a path.
4. Remove assemblage of the water pump.
5. Remove from the block of cylinders assemblage of the oil pump, - for pump branch take advantage of a screw-driver with a flat sting, - try not to damage interfaced surfaces.
6. Turn the block upside down and turn out bolts of fastening of the pallet картера.
7. The pallet branch, in order to avoid damage of interfaced surfaces, is made by поддевания by its special shovel.
8. Remove a basic arm маслозаборника.
9. Remove маслозаборник.
10. Remove маслоотражательную a partition.
11. Remove the oil filter.
12. On engines DOHC disconnect from the block an U-shaped tube, then turn out bolts of fastening of a branch pipe охладительного a path, remove a connecting tube, маслоохладитель and a tube of giving of a cooling liquid from маслоохладителя.

Dismantling

Piston fingers and coupling bolts of semiblocks

The reversing of stoppers of technological apertures is made with the help шестигранного пруткового a key on 14 mm

1  —  Stoppers of technological apertures
2  —  Lock rings
3  —  Fingers of pistons of forward cylinders
4  —  Lock rings and fingers of pistons of back cylinders
5  —  Coupling bolts
6  —  Coupling bolts

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. With the help шестигранного пруткового a key on 14 mm turn out stoppers of technological apertures.
2. Having turned a cranked shaft, translate pistons of the first and second cylinders in positions НМТ, then through technological apertures in lateral walls of the block take spring lock rings and by means of the special adaptation remove piston fingers.
3. Operating in a similar manner, take fingers of pistons №№ 3 and 4.

At assemblage all components should be established strictly as their initial installation!

4. Turn out the bolts which are pulling together semiblocks from outside 2nd and 4th, then on two-three turns ослабьте bolts, pulling together semiblocks from outside 1st and 3rd cylinders.

Extraction of internal components of the block

The scheme of installation of internal components of the block of cylinders

1  —  Coupling bolts
2  —  Semiblocks
3  — the  Epiploon
4  —  Assemblage of a cranked shaft with rods
5  —  Loose leaves of radical bearings
6  — the  Piston

 


Components of shatunno-piston groups

1  — the  Cover of the bottom head of a rod
2  —  Loose leaves шатунных bearings
3  —  Kompressionnye of a ring
4  —  Maslosemnoe a ring
5  — the  Lock ring of a piston finger

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Turn the block cylinders №№ 1 and 3 upwards, then turn out weakened earlier coupling bolts.
2. Separate the right semiblock from left, - track, that rods have not damaged the top heads of a mirror of cylinders.
3. Remove a back epiploon of a cranked shaft.
4. Take a cranked shaft in gathering with rods.
5. Take from beds in the block loose leaves of radical bearings, - выпрессовывайте loose leaves from outside, opposite to the lock lock.

At assemblage loose leaves should be established strictly on the former places!

6. The wooden handle of a hammer push out pistons from cylinders, - at assemblage pistons should be established strictly on the former places.
7. Remove covers of the bottom heads of rods, take loose leaves шатунных bearings.

At assemblage all components should be established strictly on the former places!

8. From apertures under installation of piston fingers take the remained lock rings.

Check of a condition of components

The block of cylinders

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Attentively examine semiblocks on presence of cracks and mechanical damages. In case of need give the block to a workshop of car-care centre for carrying out дефектоскопии by means of the special equipment.
2. Check up passableness маслотоков.
3. Estimate degree неплоскостности interfaced surfaces of semiblocks. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications in case of need give the block in проточку.


Cylinders and pistons

Dimensional marks are put on a forward wall of the block

1  —  Marks of the size of radical bearings
2  —  Marks of a combination of the left and right semiblocks
3  —  Marks of the size of the cylinder № 4
4  —  Marks of the size of the cylinder № 2
5  —  Marks of the size of cylinders № 1
6  —  Marks of the size of the cylinder № 3

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Dimensional marks are beaten out on the forward party of the block. Pistons of the standard sizes share on three dimensional groups (And, In and) and should be established in the cylinders marked in appropriate way.
2. At replacement of the worn out pistons replaceable elements steal up proceeding from size of a landing backlash in the cylinder. Measure internal diameter of each of cylinders in four sections of perpendicularly axis of a piston finger (in 10, 45, 80 and 115 mm from an axis of a piston finger).

Measurements should be made at temperature 20С.

3. Having prepared the complete set of pistons of the repair size, measure diameters of their skirts in a plane of a perpendicular axis of a piston finger on distance h = 52.0 mm from the bottom.

Measurement make at temperature 20С.

4. Having compared results of measurements to requirements of Specifications define sizes of landing backlashes of pistons, estimate конусность and ovality of cylinders, in case of need give the block in проточку.

All cylinders should be pierced till the identical repair size! If растачивание without excess of the maximum permissible size it is not obviously possible, the block is subject to replacement!

5. Before engine assemblage it is without fail spent хонингование mirrors of cylinders for the purpose of achievement of correct landing to them of the piston rings, providing due tightness of chambers of combustion.

At absence near at hand necessary tools or unwillingness independently to carry out хонингование, work for quite moderate payment can be charged experts of a workshop of car-care centre.

6. Two types хонов for processing of mirrors of cylinders are issued: хон type “bottle ершик” and, more traditional, superficial хон in the form of a nozzle with подпружиненными grinding stones. Both tools provide necessary quality of processing of mirrors of cylinders though use of the first is more preferable to not skilled mechanic. Enough of the rags, special хонинговочного or simply liquid lubricating oil, and also an electrodrill as a drive for хонинговочных nozzles Is required also. Operate in a following order:

    a) Clamp хон in an electrodrill cartridge, reduce подпружиненные grinding stones/rods ершика nozzles and fill last in the cylinder.

Do not forget to put on goggles or an obverse guard!

    b) Plentifully moisten a mirror of the processed cylinder oil, include a drill and start to make a nozzle back and forth motions in the cylinder. Speed of vertical moving хона should provide drawing on a surface of a mirror of the cylinder of a mesh pattern with a corner of crossing of the parties ячеи nearby 60 . Do not feel sorry some oil and try not to remove from a surface of walls of the cylinder of more material, than it is really necessary for achievement of demanded result.

Manufacturers of piston rings can make own demands to a corner of crossing of the parties ячеи a mesh pattern, - attentively familiarise with the instruction on packing ремнабора.

    c) do not take хон from the cylinder to a full stop of a drill! Continue to make back and forth motions by a nozzle until it will not stop to rotate. After a drill stop compress grinding stones and take хон from the cylinder. At using хоном type “bottle ершик” wait a full stop of a drill, then take a nozzle, continuing to rotate manually a cartridge in a normal direction.
    d) Wipe rags a mirror of the cylinder and pass to хонингованию the following.

7. On termination of processing, take advantage надфилем for removal of facets from upper edges of cylinders, - the given processing is made so that there were no difficulties with refuelling in cylinders of pistons with the rings put on them. Observe extreme care, - do not scratch надфилем a cylinder mirror.
8. In summary all block should be washed carefully out a warm solution of soap water.

It is possible to consider cylinders washed out when after carrying out on a mirror the white rags moistened with oil on it does not remain a grey touch. Do not forget to clean a cylindrical brush all oil apertures and channels, then wash out the block a water stream under a pressure.

9. After washing carefully dry the block and oil the pierced surfaces for their protection against corrosion. Prior to the beginning of engine assemblage wrap the block in a pure polyethylene package.
10. Preliminary pistons and rods should be carefully cleared. Rings are necessary for removing from pistons.

Piston rings are subject to replacement without fail.

11. By means of the special adaptation remove rings from pistons, - try not to damage a wall of the last casually.
12. Scratch out from the bottoms of pistons traces of coal adjournment. After removal of the basic layer of adjournment smooth out a surface manually a wire brush or a piece of a fine-grained emery paper.

At all do not use for зачистки made of a soft material and pistons easily subject to erosion wire nozzles to an electrodrill!

13. By means of the special adaptation clean flutes under installation of rings on pistons. It is alternatively possible to take advantage for this purpose of a fragment of an old piston ring, however be careful, - do not scratch a bottom and walls of a flute and do not cut fingers.
14. Having removed the basic adjournment, wash out шатунные assemblages by solvent and carefully dry them, whenever possible with application of compressed air.

At using the compressed air do not forget to put on goggles! Check up passableness масловозвратных apertures in back walls of flutes under installation of piston rings, and also oil apertures in the bottom heads of rods.

15. If walls of pistons and a mirror of cylinders are not damaged and excessively are not worn out, and the engine block was not pierced and not replaced, necessity for replacement of pistons also disappears. Normal deterioration of pistons is shown in the form of vertical traces of development on a persistent surface and a small weak point of landing top компрессионного rings in the flute. Do not forget that replacement of piston rings is made without fail, without dependence from their condition.
16. Attentively examine each of pistons on presence of cracks in a skirt, round ledges under installation of piston fingers and around an arrangement of rings.
17. Check up persistent surfaces of a skirt of the piston on presence of scratches, the bottom - on presence of through apertures and прогаров on edge. Presence of scratches on a skirt can be regarded as a sign of long overheats of the engine, or too early ignition of an air-fuel mix, - check up serviceability of functioning of system of cooling. Прогары along the edges of the bottom are the detonation certificate. In any case, the reason of the revealed infringement should be eliminated in order to avoid relapses. As the possible reasons of formation of the listed defects leaks of soaked up air, wrong configuration of an air-fuel mix, infringement of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition, wrong functioning of systems of ignition and EGR can act also.
18. Dot corrosion of pistons in the form of cavities speaks about hit in chambers of combustion and-or картер the engine of a cooling liquid. Besides, take care, that the reason of internal leaks has been eliminated.

Check of a backlash of landing of a piston ring in a flute


Design of piston rings

1  —  Top компрессионное a ring
2  —  Bottom (second) компрессионное a ring
3  —  Maslosemnoe a ring
4  —  Label R or N
5  — the  Top working section маслосъемного rings
6  — the  Spring dilator
7  — the  Bottom working section маслосъемного rings

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Estimate size of a lateral backlash of landing of piston rings in the flutes for what enclose a new ring outside in the flute on the piston and probeом лезвийного type measure a remaining backlash. Repeat measurement in two-three points on flute perimetre. Remember that top компрессионное the ring differs from the second (bottom), - pay attention to marks in the form of letters R and N. If the backlash size exceeds admissible value (Specifications see) pistons are subject to replacement.
2. Execute check of backlashes in locks of piston rings: fill a ring in the cylinder and level it perpendicularly, the piston bottom, having drowned on depth about 15 mm. Measurement is made with the help probeа лезвийного type. Serially define backlashes in locks of all rings. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications in case of need chisel locks a file, having clamped a ring in a vice, - pull a file only from within rings outside!
3. Check up landing freedom in pistons of fingers of the top heads of rods. At temperature 20С fingers should refuel in landing apertures in pistons effort of a thumb, - if the given condition is not carried out, make replacement of corresponding fingers.

Rods

If the engine is under repair for the purpose of elimination of knock of fingers, replace шатунные assemblages.


Definition of sizes of a bend and rod twisting at the special stand

1  — the  Rod
2  —  ShChup лезвийного type

 


Replacement of plugs of the top heads of a rod is made by means of a press and special оправки

1  —  Opravka for vypressovyvanija/landing of plugs of the top heads of rods

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Check up rods on presence of cracks and other mechanical damages. In case of this sort of revealing of defects make replacement.
2. By means of a special measuring set estimate size of a residual bend and rod twisting.
3. Establish a rod with loose leaves on a corresponding neck of a cranked shaft and with the help probeа лезвийного type define size axial люфта assemblages. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications in case of need replace the worn out rod.
4. Estimate a condition of loose leaves шатунных bearings. Make sure of absence задиров, agnails, выщерблин, signs of an overheat and other defects, - excessively worn out loose leaves are subject to replacement.
5. Measure size of working backlashes of each of шатунных bearings by means of the calibrated wire from set Plastigage, - follow instructions of manufacturers. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications in case of need replace loose leaves standard or repair the corresponding size.
6. Estimate a condition of plugs in the top heads of rods. Make sure of density of landing of plugs in rods.
7. The worn out or damaged plugs are subject to replacement: выпрессовывание plugs it is made by means of special выколотки and the press. Before landing the new plug is greased with pure impellent oil. Drill in the plug two apertures in diameter of 3 mm and develop an internal surface of the plug. Having finished procedure, carefully clear the plug of a shaving.


Cranked shaft and radical bearings


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Carefully wipe a cranked shaft and attentively examine it on presence of cracks, in case of need give a shaft to a workshop of car-care centre for carrying out дефектоскопии with application of the special equipment. In case of revealing of defects the shaft is subject to replacement.
2. With the help циферблатного a measuring instrument плунжерного type define a shaft deflection on size of palpation of an average radical neck.

At absence near at hand special V-shaped measuring support, plant in one of semiblocks loose leaves of 1st and 5th radical bearings, and lower in them a shaft. Compare result of measurement to requirements of Specifications. In case of need give a shaft in проточку, or make its replacement.

3. Check up radical and шатунные shaft necks on presence of signs of deterioration and damages. By measurement of diameters of necks in various sections and planes define sizes конусности and ovality. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications. In case of need give a shaft in проточку, - after проточки the sizes of necks should correspond to one of standard repair types (Specifications see).
4. Attentively examine loose leaves of radical bearings on presence of traces of an overheat, выщерблин, estimate degree of deterioration of working surfaces.
5. By means of the calibrated wire from measuring set Plastigage define sizes working backlashes in radical bearings. Compare results of measurements to Specification requirements. In case of need replace loose leaves repair, or give a shaft in проточку.

Assemblage

Cranked shaft and shatunno-piston groups

Assemblage of a cranked shaft and shatunno-piston group

1  —  Loose leaves шатунного the bearing
2  — the  Rod
3  — the  Cover of the bottom head of a rod
4  —  Piston rings
5  — the  Lock ring of a piston finger
6  — the  Lateral label

 


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Establish loose leaves of bearings in the bottom heads of rods and their cover. Grease surfaces of loose leaves with pure impellent oil.
2. Establish rods on corresponding necks of a cranked shaft lateral labels to a pin.
3. Establish covers of the bottom heads and tighten fixture with demanded effort. Track, that labels in the form of arrows on covers specified forward on a shaft.

Each cover should be established strictly on the rod. Before a tightening of fixing nuts it is necessary to grease a carving part of hairpins with pure impellent oil.

4. Manually plant in the bottom flute of the piston working sections and a spring dilator маслосъемного rings, then, by means of the special adaptation plant in the flutes the second and the first (top) компрессионные rings.

Before installation of pistons of their ring it is necessary to develop locks as it is shown on an illustration

1  —  Marks of an accessory of the piston to corresponding semiblock (R - the right semiblock, L - the left semiblock)
2  — the  Lock of the top working section маслосъемного rings
3  —  to Bend a uvula of the top working section and to fill it in a reception aperture
4  — the  Lock top компрессионного rings
5  — the  Lock of the bottom working section маслосъемного rings
6  —  Locks bottom компрессионного a ring and a spring dilator маслосъемного rings

 


The installation scheme on pistons of internal lock rings of piston fingers



 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Develop rings locks as is shown in an illustration.
2. Plant on one spring lock ring in apertures under finger installation in each of pistons.

Rings should be established from outside, opposite to an arrangement corresponding technological in the semiblock.


The block of cylinders

The scheme of drawing of hermetic on an interfaced surface of semiblocks

1  —  Liquid hermetic
2  — the  Flute on installation of a sealing ring
3  —  Flutes in beds of radical bearings
4  —  Maslotok

 


Establish semiblocks on the assembly stand and enclose in their bed loose leaves of radical bearings.

Before installation of loose leaves of their back and bed in semiblocks it is necessary to clear carefully of oil and any other pollution!


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Grease radical necks of a shaft with pure impellent oil.
2. Lay a shaft in bed of the semiblock of 1st and 3rd cylinders.
3. Grease an interfaced surface hermetic of type Tree-bond 1215 and establish on it the semiblock of 2nd and 4th cylinders.

Do not suppose hermetic hit in flutes under landing of sealing rings, bearings and маслотоки!

4. Screw the coupling bolts established from outside of the semiblock of 2nd and 4th cylinders and tighten them preliminary with effort of 20 Nanometers.
5. Develop the block horizontally, screw opposite coupling bolts, then tighten all bolts with demanded effort.

Details of assemblage of the block of cylinders


1  —  Loose leaves of radical bearings
2  —  Assemblage of a cranked shaft with rods
3  — the  Semiblock
4  —  Coupling bolts of the left semiblock
5  —  Coupling bolts of the right semiblock

 


Pistons and piston fingers

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Turn block assemblage by the first and second cylinder upwards.
2. Will check up a cranked shaft so that rods of 1st and 2nd cylinders have appeared in position НМТ.
3. Grease surfaces of pistons and a mirror of cylinders with pure impellent oil, press out piston rings оправкой the special tool and fill pistons in cylinders, - in avoidance выскакивания rings watch pressing density оправки to a semiblock surface.
4. Grease with impellent oil special оправку and fill it in a technological aperture in a lateral wall of the corresponding cylinder. Achieve combination of an aperture with an aperture in the top head of a rod.
5. Grease with impellent oil a corresponding piston finger and through a technological aperture pass it in the piston and a rod head.
6. Through a technological aperture fix a finger the second lock ring. Muffle an aperture a special stopper.

Do not forget to replace a lining заглушек and to grease them before installation by liquid hermetic of type Three-bond 1105.

7. Operating in a similar manner, establish a piston finger of the second cylinder, then turn assemblage and establish fingers of pistons of the second semiblock.

Installation of external components

Details of installation of external components of the block of cylinders on an example of engine SOHC, a place of drawing of hermetic


1  —  Maslootrazhatelnaja a partition
2  —  Maslozabornik
3  — the  Arm маслозаборника
4  — the  Pallet картера
5  — an  oil separator Cover
6  — the  Flywheel

7  — the  Bottom cover of a dome of transmission
8  — the  Oil pump
9  — the  Water pump
10  — the  Branch pipe охладительного a path
11  — the  Oil filter


Water and oil pumps

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Establish маслоотражательную a partition.
2. Establish a sealing ring and маслозаборник. Tighten fixture with demanded effort (10 Nanometers).
3. Establish an arm маслозаборника.
4. Grease a surface of the pallet interfaced to the block картера with liquid hermetic of type Three-bond 1207. Press the pallet to the block, screw fixture and tighten it with demanded effort (5 Nanometers).
5. Put liquid hermetic of type Three-bond 1215 on an interfaced surface of a cover of an oil separator. Establish a cover, screw fixture and tighten it with demanded effort (6.4 Nanometers).
6. Establish a flywheel/privodnoj a disk and tighten its fixture with demanded effort (69 75 Nanometers: for engines SOHC and 78 84 Nanometers: for engines DOHC).
7. Establish a transmission dome.
8. Establish a new forward epiploon of a cranked shaft.
9. Put hermetic of type Three-bond 1215 on a surface of the oil pump interfaced to the block.
10. Press pump assemblage to the block, screw fixture and tighten it with demanded effort (6.4 Nanometers). Be careful, - try not to damage an epiploon.

Do not forget to establish before installation of the oil pump a sealing ring and an epiploon. Before installation track combination лысок a rotor of the pump and a cranked shaft.

11. Establish assemblage of the water pump, - do not forget to replace a sealing lining. Screw fixture and tighten it in strictly certain order with demanded effort (10 14 Nanometers: for engines SOHC and 12 Nanometers: for engines DOHC).
12. Establish a branch pipe охладительного a path.
13. On engines SOHC establish the oil filter.
14. On engines DOHC establish маслоохладитель (effort of a tightening of fixture: 49 59 Nanometers), a connecting tube, a branch pipe охладительного a path, then - the oil filter.
15. Establish heads of the block of cylinders and the inlet pipeline (see above).
16. On engines SOHC establish components of drive ГРМ (see above).
17. On engines DOHC establish camshafts and covers клапанных mechanisms, then - components of drive ГРМ.